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Reference : UMR8201-JOSBRO-006
Workplace : VALENCIENNES
Date of publication : Monday, April 05, 2021
Scientific Responsible name : Sébastien DELPRAT
Type of Contract : PhD Student contract / Thesis offer
Contract Period : 36 months
Start date of the thesis : 1 September 2021
Proportion of work : Full time
Remuneration : 2 135,00 € gross monthly
Description of the thesis topic
Thesis n°3 – Train breaking optimization for particle emission reduction
The thesis subject is related to the new control law development for the reduction of particle matter emission during train braking phases. Two different topics will be covered. First, particle emission models developed within the project will be coupled with model of the train dynamics in order to compute both optimal speed profile and real time control laws. Second, studies about the splitting of the braking demand using the different available or other actuators (electric machine, electric brake, etc) will be conducted. To this end, an optimal control problem will be formulated to compute the optimal power split in order to minimize the particle emission.
Finally, the performances of the developed control laws will be assessed using a Hardware-In-The-Loop approach on a test bench developed within the project.
Work to be done:
• Analyze the Alstom computation tools and develop a simplified numerical model suitable for control laws development.
• Assessment of the actual train particle emissions on a reference case using the developed model
• Investigate all the possible solutions for particle emissions reduction and selection of a few candidate solutions, them including:
o Electrodynamic brake optimization
o Decrease the use of mechanical brakes in favor of other braking systems
o Optimization of mechanical brake control law
• Analyze the potential of braking emissions for the candidate solutions using the numerical model
o Update the model to match the potential solution
o Optimize the mission profile and the individual actuator control law
o Evaluate the sizing of the different components
• Assess the potential solution performances using the LAMIH test bench and compare them to the reference case
• Assessment of the impact of the potential solution deployment on the other train systems
The mission speed profile will be either optimized either by the optimization of a few high-level parameters or by mathematically optimizing the whole speed profile. For a braking system architecture, the problem consists in formulating an optimization problem, selecting a suitable optimization tool and applying it to the problem.
The real time control requires to study the braking strategies. The objective is first to retrieve from the emission models the information required to control the braking actuators (temperature profile, peak breaking force, etc). Two approaches can be sought: first, empirical rules can be derived either from simulation result and/or human expertise. Second, control law framework such as Hinf may be used to guarantee the compromise between breaking efficiency and emissions. The developed control law will be implemented on the test bench using dSpace rapid prototyping system.
This thesis is proposed by LAMIH as part of the BREAQ project. LAMIH UMR CNRS 8201 (Laboratory of Industrial and Human Automation control, Mechanical engineering and Computer Science) is a joint research unit between Université Polytechnique Hauts de France (UPHF) and National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS). The new LAMIH is divided in four scientific departments clearly identified: Automation and Control, Mechanical Engineering, Computer Science and Human and Life Sciences (SHV).
The BREAQ project, supported by ADEME brings together several academic and industrial partners including ALSTOM. It aims to reduce emissions of braking particles at source and predict the diffusion of these particles in the environment to develop efficient catching solutions. As part of this project, 3 PhD thesis subjects are proposed by the LAMIH laboratory.
Air quality is a major public health issue. According to the WHO, by reducing air pollution levels, countries can reduce mortality from stroke, heart disease, lung cancer and respiratory diseases.
Rail transport is rightly considered to be a low-cost, sustainable mobility solution with low greenhouse gas impact and a low contributor to air pollutant emissions (NOx, SO2, VOC & PM10). However, several studies show that the pollutant concentrations in underground railway enclosures should be considered of concern. In some cases, concentrations of fine particles can be ten times higher indoors than outdoors. In this context, the reduction or mitigation of the sources of emissions linked to braking, the main contributor in the railway sector, represents a major stake for people's health. Previous studies carried out at the LAMIH laboratory (Charlene Octau PhD Thesis, 2019) revealed that the conditions of use of mechanical braking influence the dimensions of the emitted particles and have allowed to develop the necessary basis for the numerical simulation of the particle's diffusion in the surrounding environment.
• Engineering or Master degree in Mechatronics (or equivalent) with good knowledge of automatic control and some knowledge of mechanics (tribology, fluids mechanics).
• Matlab/Simulink and other languages (C, C++) programming skills are required
• Experience with nonlinear and/or optimal control is appreciated
• Pragmatic scientific approach and good perception of the economic context.
• Approche scientifique pragmatique et bonne perception du contexte économique.
• Excellent oral and written communication skills, in French and English (B2).
• Desired qualities: rigor, innovation, initiative.
• The PhD thesis work will be done in collaboration with the project partners (ALSTOM, FLERTEX, LAMCUBE laboratory, SAGE laboratory). The candidate must have communication skills and openness in order to be able to communicate and capitalize on their experiences.
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