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Reference : FR2002-CARBOU-002
Workplace : GUYANCOURT
Date of publication : Tuesday, November 26, 2019
Scientific Responsible name : Leïla Kloul (laboratoire DAVID/Fédération de recherche SIHS) and Yoann Demoli (laboratoire PRINTEMPS/Fédération de recherche SIHS)
Type of Contract : PhD Student contract / Thesis offer
Contract Period : 36 months
Start date of the thesis : 1 February 2020
Proportion of work : Full time
Remuneration : 2 135,00 € gross monthly
Description of the thesis topic
In terms of urban mobility, and thus of quality of life and environmental impact, the major challenge for cities of tomorrow is to allow decongestion of mobility means and
infrastructures, thus reducing constrained mobility. Beyond the multiplication of opportunities for interactive mobility, this decongestion requires rethinking the question of time and space of the territories concerned. Indeed, congestion is a consequence of the fact that growing populations have to travel on longer and longer journeys at the same time and to get to the same place (including mobility by or for work or studies, to access to shops, utilities).
Rethinking space is a complex public policy issue that can not be answered in the short term. The question of time can be addressed today. Answering this question becomes, in particular, the main task now entrusted to time bureaus which exist in several European urban areas and which manage empirically very specific cases. This mission is to act on the causes of mobility congestion at certain times by rethinking the schedules of activities (work, study, trade, etc.). But this can not be done without taking into account all the constraints of activity and resources, not only those related to mobility, and the characteristics and specificities of the populations affected. For example, coordinating the start and end times of a university with those of the public transport system requires that not only the availability of these means of transport but also the availability of educational resources be taken into account (lecture halls). teaching, presence of service and security personnel, etc.) and especially the sociology of students and teachers (age, address, family situation, perception of mobility issues, etc.). Similarly, reflecting on varied work schedules and on the development of teleworking with a view to decongestion requires a review of individuals' work relationships, the way in which they articulate professional activity and domestic life, and so on.
The objective of this project is therefore to be able to offer a heterogeneous platform for data analysis, integrating concepts of data processing in SHS. This platform will be the decision support of time offices. In particular, the data concerned will concern in particular the temporal values of the mobility flows and the congestion they cause, the description of the organization of the activities of a territory, the other types of resources or constraints associated with the activities that take place. There are, and above all, affected actors and populations who will have to take ownership of and respond to changes in the organization of the time of the territories. Firstly, from the different types of data available or to be obtained, which will have to be analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively, an observatory of mobilities will allow an understanding of mobility in its complexity beyond simple flow measurement. its impact in terms of activities and quality of life. This observatory will also make it possible to diagnose situations in tension and the possibilities of acceptable modification. In particular, the observatory should make it possible to qualitatively analyze the impact of teleworking and the layout of places and working hours offered to employees. Such an observatory will require the development of new metrics and analytical tools, including qualitative, which is also one of the objectives of this project. The results and analyzes thus provided by the observatory will then allow the establishment of diagnostics, optimization scenarios and the possibility of simulating the impact of change in the organization of the territory's activities.
A large number of potentially available data are required for such a time office, flow data of course, but also data from surveys carried out as part of the mobility plans of companies, surveys carried out by municipalities, educational organizations, etc. The project will be initiated on the basis of these data, knowing that then the data generated continuously by the users will be essential. Mobility in a territory concerns not only the citizens residing there, but also the people coming regularly to carry out activities there (work, study, trade, leisures, ..) without residing there. A time office can thus be effective only if both agree to feed it with quantitative data (for example from their smartphones or from mobile sensors that it would accept to carry), or qualitative to from their reactions or their responses to ad hoc or ongoing surveys. The exploitation of all these heterogeneous data will have to be done by a systemic and interdisciplinary approach (mainly SHS and numerical) for a support to the consultation within a time office.
The aim of this doctoral project is therefore to define and use in real cases a systemic and interdisciplinary approach for an understanding of mobility in its complexity and its consequences on users' quality of life in the face of constrained mobility. congestion of transport infrastructure. These elements will then lead to the establishment of diagnostics and decongestion solutions for future time bureaus.
The project aims at designing and using a complete chain of heterogeneous data processing in concrete cases, with an interdisciplinary approach that will have to be integrated. This project is divided into three phases. First, the collection, qualification of quantitative and qualitative data; on this phase, the doctoral student will benefit from a first interdisciplinary action that will be carried out on the associated territories from the first half of 2019. A second phase concerning the development of interdisciplinary approaches for the analysis and the treatment of these data, and finally a third phase the proposal of models to measure the social impact and in terms of decongestion of temporal organization changes of the activities of these territories.
The present doctoral project is thus a research activity in connection with the participation of the two DAVID and PRINTEMPS laboratories in the TIGA (Greater Ambition Innovation Territories) project in Ile de France, which starts in 2020, in particular for the creation of offices of the times of several pilot territories. In particular, this program was initiated by VGP's Bureau des Temps working group within the research and innovation program MoveInSaclay (http://www.moveinsaclay.fr), which supports and participates in the doctoral project, around three use cases have been identified, concerning an activity zone in Vélizy, the link between SNCF stations and the Versailles Sciences UFR, and the connection between the Massy mobility hub and the Saclay plateau. Quantitative and qualitative data already available, and those that are planned to be collected, will make it possible to develop a methodological approach that can be applied to other territories.
The student will be enrolled in the doctoral school STIC (Sciences et Technologies de l'Information et de la Communication) of University Paris-Saclay. The PhD student will be a member of the DAVID laboratory and the PRINTEMPS laboratory, and will share his research time between these two laboratories.
Constraints and risks
Need to travel regularly to the various actors of the project.
Quantitative sociology, introduction to manipulation and data analysis.
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