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PHD Student in Mechanical engineering (W/M) - BREAQ Project - Thesis n°2

This offer is available in the following languages:
Français - Anglais

Date Limite Candidature : lundi 26 avril 2021

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General information

Reference : UMR8201-JOSBRO-005
Workplace : VALENCIENNES
Date of publication : Monday, April 05, 2021
Scientific Responsible name : Laurent KEIRSBULCK
Type of Contract : PhD Student contract / Thesis offer
Contract Period : 36 months
Start date of the thesis : 1 September 2021
Proportion of work : Full time
Remuneration : 2 135,00 € gross monthly

Description of the thesis topic

Thesis subject n ° 2 – Modeling of the diffusion of railway brake particles - Validation and
application to a simplified real case.

The thesis work will consist in developing and implementing a numerical method which will be able to model flows loaded with railway brake particles. The aim is to define a numerical methodology to simulate the diffusion of particles from rail braking in order to predict the propagation of particles in the near environment using the open-source CFD environment OpenFOAM.

In this thesis work, the objectives and expected results are:

• To carry out a state of the art of numerical models of particle transport:
◦ Acquire a greater understanding of the specific physics of flows loaded with particles from brake residue and the existing methods and models to simulate such a flow.
◦ Find significant and reproducible results on similar physics in the literature in order to be able to make comparisons and validate the numerical approach on this reference configuration.
• To validate the numerical methodology that will be developed with OpenFOAM by reproducing the "academic" reference configuration.
• To carry out an evaluation of the emission and diffusion model on a simplified real case:
◦ Simulation close to the real case based on the procedure established previously.
◦ To do so, a simulation corresponding to the braking test bench developed in the LAMIH laboratory (as part of another PhD thesis) will be implemented.
◦ Completion of this task will provide a procedure and numerical tools useful for simulation in an operational environment.

Work carried out and resources implemented:

• Bibliographic study allowing in particular to deduce the following elements:
◦ Fluid-particle coupling method adapted to the granulometry of the braking particles.
◦ Turbulence model adapted to the operating conditions.
◦ Determination of a similar study in the literature which will serve as a reference.
• Development and validation of the numerical methodology on the reference configuration found in the bibliography :
◦ Getting started with the numerical ecosystem and tools associated with OpenFOAM.
◦ Development and implementation of turbulence and particle transport models.
◦ Computation campaign: geometry design, building of meshes, simulations, data post-processing and validation.
• Validation of the numerical methodology based on the results from the braking test bench:
◦ Interaction with the experimental team to help in the set up of the test bench and post-processing of the results.
◦ Selection of the operating conditions of the reference configuration used for validation.
◦ Computation campaign: geometry design, building of meshes, simulations, data post-processing and validation.

Work Context

This thesis is proposed by LAMIH as part of the BREAQ project. LAMIH UMR CNRS 8201 (Laboratory of Industrial and Human Automation control, Mechanical engineering and Computer Science) is a joint research unit between Université Polytechnique Hauts de France (UPHF) and National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS). The new LAMIH is divided in four scientific departments clearly identified: Automation and Control, Mechanical Engineering, Computer Science and Human and Life Sciences (SHV).

The BREAQ project, supported by ADEME brings together several academic and industrial partners including ALSTOM. It aims to reduce emissions of braking particles at source and predict the diffusion of these particles in the environment to develop efficient catching solutions. As part of this project, 3 PhD thesis subjects are proposed by the LAMIH laboratory.

Air quality is a major public health issue. According to the WHO, by reducing air pollution levels, countries can reduce mortality from stroke, heart disease, lung cancer and respiratory diseases.

Rail transport is rightly considered to be a low-cost, sustainable mobility solution with low greenhouse gas impact and a low contributor to air pollutant emissions (NOx, SO2, VOC & PM10). However, several studies show that the pollutant concentrations in underground railway enclosures should be considered of concern. In some cases, concentrations of fine particles can be ten times higher indoors than outdoors. In this context, the reduction or mitigation of the sources of emissions linked to braking, the main contributor in the railway sector, represents a major stake for people's health. Previous studies carried out at the LAMIH laboratory (Charlene Octau PhD Thesis, 2019) revealed that the conditions of use of mechanical braking influence the dimensions of the emitted particles and have allowed to develop the necessary basis for the numerical simulation of the particles diffusion in the surrounding environment.

Additional Information

Candidate profile :

• Engineering degree or Master in Computational Fluid Mechanics (CFD) or equivalent.
• Advanced knowledge in Turbulence Modeling.
• Practice and good knowledge of OpenFOAM would be an asset.
• Ability to develop in different languages (C ++, Python).
• The candidate should show a strong motivation for numerical simulation while being able to interact with the experimental team.
• Pragmatic scientific approach and good perception of the economic context.
• Excellent oral and written communication skills, in French and English (B2).
• Desired qualities: rigor, innovation, initiative.
• The PhD thesis work will be done in collaboration with the project partners (ALSTOM, FLERTEX, LAMCUBE laboratory, SAGE laboratory). The candidate must have communication skills and openness in order to be able to communicate and capitalize on their experiences.

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